Papers on Epiphyseal Fusion

Below are listed some articles on rates of epiphyseal fusion in some Arctic animals:

Bement, L. C. and S. Basmajian. 1996. Epiphyseal Fusion in Bison antiquus. Current Research in the Pleistocene. 13:95-96.

Carson, J. D. 1961. Epiphyseal Cartilage as an Age Indicator in Fox and Gray Squirrels. Journal of Wildlife Management 25(1):90-93.          [not Arctic species, but may be able to extrapolate?]

Gol’din, P. E. 2004. Postnatal growth and ossification of the forelimb skeleton of the harbour porpoise (Phocoena phocoena, Linnaeus 1758) of the Sea of Azov and the Black Sea. Uchenye Zipiski NTU 17(56):66-81.          [In Russian]

Naughton, D. 1994. Bones of Known-Aged Beaver and Bear: a photo essay. Canadian Zooarchaeology 6:5-16.

Purdue, J. R. 1983. Epiphyseal Closure in White-Tailed Deer. Journal of Wildlife Management 47(4):1207-1213.

Spiess, A. E. 1979. Reindeer and Caribou Hunters: An Archaeological Study. Academic Press, New York.          [see Table 3.15: Epiphyseal Closure Sequence and Timing, Ages of Fusion].

Stora, J. 2000. Skeletal development in the Grey seal Halichoerus grypus, the Ringed seal Phoca hispida botnica, the Harbour seal Phoca vitulina vitulina and the Harp seal Phoca groenlandica. Epiphyseal Fusion and Life History. Archaeozoologia. 11:199-222.

Sumner-Smith, G. 1966. Observations on Epiphyseal Fusion of the Canine Appendicular Skeleton. Journal of Small Animal Practice. 7:303-311.

Sumner-Smith, G., Pennock, P. W., and K. Ronald. 1972. The Harp Seal, Pagophilus groenlandicus, (Erxleben, 1777): XVI Epiphyseal Fusion. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 8:29-32.

Tiemeier, O. W., and M. L. Plenert. 1964. A Comparison of Three Methods for Determining the Age of Black-Tailed JackrabbitsJournal of Mammalogy 45(3):409-416.          [not Arctic species, but may be able to extrapolate?]

Weinstock, J. 2009. Epiphyseal Fusion in Brown Bears: A Population Study of Grizzlies (Ursus arctos horribilis) from Montana and Wyoming. International Journal of Osteoarchaeology 19:416-423.



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